Chloramine effects on distribution system materials

by Steve Harold Reiber

Publisher: AWWA Research Foundation, Publisher: American Water Works Association in Denver, CO

Written in English
Cover of: Chloramine effects on distribution system materials | Steve Harold Reiber
Published: Pages: 168 Downloads: 916
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  • United States.


  • Chloramines.,
  • Disinfection and disinfectants.,
  • Water-supply engineering -- United States.,
  • Corrosion and anti-corrosives.,
  • Water -- Purification -- Chlorination.

Edition Notes

Statementprepared by Steven Reiber for AWWA Research Foundation.
ContributionsAWWA Research Foundation., American Water Works Association.
LC ClassificationsTD462 .R45 1993
The Physical Object
Paginationxviii, 168 p. :
Number of Pages168
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL1149744M
ISBN 100898677033
LC Control Number94123209

edition of Chloramines: Safe Work Practices, including the City of Vancouver and the BC Municipal Safety Association. This book is dedicated to Ian Salomon, the driving force behind this project. Ian’s commitment to excellence in occupational health and safety over . Safe drinking water. Current studies indicate that using or drinking water with small amounts of chloramine does not cause harmful health effects and provides protection against waterborne disease outbreaks studies reported no observed health effects from drinking water with chloramine levels of less than 50 mg/L in drinking water 7.A normal level for drinking water disinfection can. Chloramine-polluted air is also acidic and corrodes stainless and carbon steel, which can cause structural deterioration. Healthy and durable indoor pool. spaces require a well-designed air distribution system with enough ventilation to exhaust toxic chloramines and protect the building structure and materials from harmful condensation and. drinking water distribution system to limit bacterial growth (termed “residual” or secondary disinfection). Currently, chlorine, chloramine, and chlorine dioxide are approved by the USEPA for disinfection in the distribution systems. Chlorine dioxide is sometimes used for distribution system disinfection in .

Chloramination is the treatment of drinking water with a chloramine disinfectant. Both chlorine and small amounts of ammonia are added to the water one at a time which react together to form chloramine (also called combined chlorine), a long lasting mine disinfection is used in both small and large water treatment plants. A: The drawbacks of using chloramine as a final distribution system disinfectant are: (1) potential deleterious effects on elastomeric materials sometimes used in distribution system appurtenances and plumbing fixtures, (2) vulnerability to the microbiological process known as nitrification, (3) potential formation of chloramine-related. chlorine residual in the distribution system. Whilst there is no UK standard for chloramines in water, the WHO recommend a maximum acceptable concentration for chloramines in drinking water of 3 mg / L (rounded figure). This is based on a tolerable daily intake (TDI) of monochloramine. Vancouver Water District, which compared the effects of using either chlorine or chloramine as the secondary disinfectant on bacterial regrowth in a distribution system. In their study, it was determined that chloramine was better able to attain and maintain a disinfection residual. Total chloramine residuals (after 10 minutes).

Recently, Roberson () noted that one of the distribution system issues currently on the regulatory radar is, “Should disinfectant residual requirements be a specific number as opposed to the current detectable residual?” As our title suggests, we seek to assess what it means to maintain a “detectable” disinfectant residual in drinking water distribution systems in the United States.   If not dosed correctly, chloramines can provoke taste and odor problems, or leave a distribution system without disinfection residual. Some characteristics in water quality can negatively affect lead and copper concentrations in the distribution system, especially if a distribution system contains older materials. In the present study, the effects of hypochlorous acid (HOCl), monochloramine (NH2Cl), glutamine-chloramine (Glu-Cl) and taurinechloramine (Tau-Cl) on the formation of lipoxygenase (LOX) metabolite, HETE, and cyclooxygenase (COX) metabolites, TXB2, and HHT, from exogenous arachidonic acid (AA) in rat platelets were examined. Chloramines remain active in the water system for a considerably long period of time. Like other molecules, chloramines contribute to the total amount of dissolved solids in the water. Like chlorine, chloramines are selectively reactive and may have damaging affects when .

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Chloramine Effects on Distribution System Materials [Reiber, Steve Harold] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Chloramine Effects on Distribution System Materials. Chloramine Effects on Distribution System Materials: Authors: Steve Harold Reiber, American Water Works Association: Edition: illustrated: Publisher: American Water Works Association.

Get this from a library. Chloramine effects on distribution system materials. [Steve Harold Reiber; AWWA Research Foundation.; American Water Works Association.]. Abstract Studies the corrosion potential of combined and free chlorines on a wide range of distribution system materials.

Includes results of tests on metallic and elastomeric materials commonly found in distribution systems. Published in Postdisinfection using chloramines can limit coliform regrowth in pipeline biofilms and formation of disinfection by‐products (DBPs) in distribution systems. Two utilities that have had occurrences of total coliform converted from free chlorine to chloramines.

Water in both distribution systems was monitored for biological and chemical quality for a year after the by: Chloramine Effects on Distribution System Materials. Share this Resource. Related Resources.

Subscriber Internal Corrosion of Water Distribution Systems, 2nd ed. 04/21/ Subscriber Chloramine Effects on Distribution System Materials. Report # 03/01/ 03/01/ West Quincy Avenue Denver, CO North Fairfax. Chloramine Decomposition in Distribution System and Model Waters Richard Louis Valentine American Water Works Association, - Technology & Engineering - pages.

transition has been problematic in some distribution systems where chloramines have been shown to be more persistent and susceptible to causing corrosion. A brief Reclamation review in compiled limited information for corrosion of. Excessive chlorine levels produce THMs, while excess Chloramine effects on distribution system materials book increases the potential for nitrification in the distribution system.

The US EPA recognizes three analytical methods as acceptable for measuring residual chloramines. These corrosion data are mainly based on results of general corrosion laboratory tests, carried out with pure chemicals and water solutions nearly saturated with air (the corrosion rate can be quite different if the solution is free from oxygen).

All concentrations are given in weight-% and the solvent is water if nothing else is shown. The corrosion data apply to annealed materials with. Distribution System Optimization Study Focus. High water age Increased disinfection byproduct formation (THMs and HAAs) Adverse health effects-suspected carcinogens and reproductive and developmental disorders Increased risk of microbial contamination Adverse health effects-pathogenic bacteria, fungus etc.

Nitrification (if chloraminated. Chloramine, a combination of ammonia and chlorine, is a disinfecting agent used in some municipal water treatment plants, because it tends to remain longer in the Chloramine effects on distribution system materials book distribution system than chlorine.

Chloramines have been linked to respiratory tract damage and eye irritation in swimming pools. There are many studies that associate chlorinated drinking water with bladder and colon cancer, but. A limitation of chloramine treatment is the potential to set up nitrification in the distribution system.

Nitrification occurs when small amounts of excess ammonia promote the growth of “nitrifying” bacteria in the distribution system.

Nitrification increases when the water temperature rises. In the field, the severity of the effect of chloramine exposure has varied widely. Tests have shown that the degree of deterioration depends on the material formulation used, the amount of chloramine present in the system, and the temperature of the operating environment.

In some cases, the breakdown of the elastomer can be rapid. Effect of chloramine concentration on biofilm maintenance on pipe surfaces exposed to nutrient-limited drinking a con sistent chloramine residual in the distribution system to. Chloramine decay in collected distribution system waters.

Monochloramine decay in waters from five different treatment plants was studied to examine the applicability of the model in real waters: (1) University of Iowa Water Plant, Iowa, which receives its water from the Iowa River and mainly serves the University of Iowa.

Monochloramine Decay in Model and Distribution System Waters. Abstract. Chloramines have long been used to provide a disinfecting residual in distribution systems where it is difficult to maintain a free chlorine residual or where disinfection by-product (DBP) formation is of concern.

The effect of additional reactive material must be. A ful1 report of this Project, ““Chloramine Effects on Distribtction System Materials” (catalog # ), is available from AWWA Customer Service (1‐‐‐). Reports are free to AWWA Research Foundation subscribers by calling ‐‐   The effects of water quality on pipe-wall demand were evaluated using the distribution system simulator at the U.S.

Environmental Protection Agency's Test and Evaluation Center. Several models are developed regarding disinfectant decay, making it easier to predict chlorine demand after changes in treatment.

Chloramine can cause leaching of lead from lead pipes, lead soldering and from so called "lead free" brass plumbing parts. Lead leached by chloramine can cause lead poisoning. Lead poisoning can cause neurological damage, health problems and even death in young children.

Chloramine can cause pinhole pitting in copper pipes. present in source waters (7). In addition, increased releases of lead in the distribution system also can occur (8). Environmental health effects of chloramine Normal levels of chloramine found in drinking water range from 0 – 4 mg//L, and are considered safe to drink (1).

The maximum contaminant level for chloramine is 4 mg/L (9). Initial experimentation demonstrated that nominal distribution system levels of chloramine and free chlorine (3 - 5 mg/l as [2]) at typical distribution system temperatures would not produce meaningful differences in elastomeric degradation within a convenient laboratory time frame ( days).

The purpose of this study was to identify the effect that water quality, pipe material, pipe size, flow conditions and the use of corrosion inhibitors would have on the rate of free chlorine and chloramine decay in distribution systems.

Empirical models were developed to predict the disinfectant residual concentration with time based on the parameters that affected it. Chloramine levels are more complicated to regulate than chlorine levels. Failure to properly control and monitor the treatment process can cause undesirable chemical reactions such as increased corrosion of pipes or nitrification in the distribution system.

Corrosion can cause leaching of lead and copper from pipes and solder. The most authoritative paper on compatibility between monochloramine and elastomers (namely NBR, EPDM, PTFE) is the AWWARF book titled “Chloramine effects on distribution system materials” (Reiber ).

In this book the author reports cases of elastomer failure and a possible failure mechanism (attack on the sulfur cross-linkage of rubber).

Chloramines – mg/L (as Cl 2) Chlorine Dioxide * – mg/L (as ClO 2) *Adverse health effects based on short-term exposure. Chlorine and Chloramines Monitoring Measured in the distribution system at the same time and same location as the Total Coliform Rule (bacteriological) sample.

–Chloramines smell fine unless they are dosed or maintained wrong. –Some web sites say that chloramines smell bad. Monochloramine—the disinfectant species—smells like chlorine. Di- and tri-chloramine stink. –Experience proves that chloramines do not cause health issues.

–Some web sites blame various symptoms on chloramines, but 25%. Informational Materials General Info • timing, reasons for, effects of change in the distribution system, providing increased protection from bacterial contamination. • Distribution System: > mg chloramine/l, 45 µg TTHM/l • Free chlorine for three weeks in October.

Public Notification Efforts. Get this from a library. Ammonia from chloramine decay: effects on distribution system nitrification. [Gregory W Harrington; AWWA Research Foundation.].

Since chloramines are not as reactive as chlorine with organic material in water, they produce substantially lower concentrations of disinfection byproducts in the distribution system.

Some disinfection byproducts, such as the trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs), may have adverse health effects at high levels.

Reactions involving NOM and reduced metals will be the dominant chloramine loss pathways in distribution systems containing deposit material. Deposit material will catalyze decomposition and some DBP formation reactions due to the presence of adsorbed reduced metals and NOM.THE EFFECT OF FREE CHLORINE AND CHLORAMINES ON LEAD RELEASE IN A DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM by FERDINAND ALFREDO VASQUEZ B.S.

University of Central Florida, A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Environmental Engineering in the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering.Chloramine usage has been problematic due to difficulty in accurately controlling ammonia and chlorine dosage in a dynamic distribution system • Introduction of ammonia can lead to nitrification as it is a nutrient to AO’s • Over-chlorination can create chloramine variants which lead to taste and odor problems in drinking.